I found this site and course about building a modern computer and it sounds amazing! You build a computer from the ground up using a hardware simulator. Building and programming the hardware all the way to a game of tetris. You start with a NAND logic gate. Then move up to chips, CPU, Operating system, and in the end you make a game on the computer you built yourself. NAND gate to tetris in 6 weeks!
It sounds very fun and it looks like everything is free! I wish they had stuff like this when I was in school. But Shimon said in his video that many people take this course on there own and do fine.
I also read somewhere that it is about 5-10 hours of work a week for 6 weeks. So about 60 hours. Not a bad amount of time to learn so much!
There homepage is http://nand2tetris.org/ and all the course info can be found there.